The Dunning-Kruger effect

we overestimate or underestimate our own abilities.


The relation between average self-perceived performance and average actual performance on a college exam.
The red area shows the tendency of low performers to overestimate their abilities. Nevertheless, low performers' self-assessment is lower than that of high performers.

The Dunning-Kruger effect describes that on average:

  • low performers overestimate their abilities
  • high performers underestimate their abilities